EARTH Thailand


Mercury Contamination, Exposures and Risk: A New Global Picture Emerges

Zero Mercury Working group, December 2012

Mercury is a well-known and dangerous toxic pollutant that contaminates fish around the world.  There has been a 3-fold increase in mercury since preindustrial times and a recent study indicates that mercury accumulation in the oceans correlates with the rising tide of mercury pollution. Mercury has no respect for national or regional boundaries.  It can travel long distances through the atmosphere and deposit far from its original source, where bacteria absorb it and convert it to a very toxic form, methylmercury, which works its way up the food chain into humans.


Experiences & Understandings of the Human-Ecological Issues: Tasik Chini and Kiriwong Sites

By Penchom Saetang, Director, Ecological Alert and Recovery – Thailand (EARTH)

15 June 2012

Community Efforts in Addressing Human-Ecological Problems


Methyl Mercury Exposure at Niigata, Japan: Results of Neurological Examinations of 103 Adults

Authors: Kimio Maruyama, Takashi Yorifuji, Toshihide Tsuda, Tomoko Sekikawa, Hiroto Nakadaira, Hisashi Saito, June 2012

Large-scale poisonings caused by methyl mercury (MeHg) have occurred in Japan (Minamata in the 1950s and Niigata in the 1960s) and Iraq (in the 1970s). The current WHO neurological risk standard for adult exposure (hair level: 50 µg/g) was based partly om evidence from Niigata which did not consider any cases who were diagnosed later and/or exposed to low level of MeHg (hair mercury level less than 50 µg/g). 


Industrial Pollution Impact and the PRTR Development in Thailand

By Penchom Saetang, Walaiporn Mooksuwan, Ecological Alert and Recovery – Thailand (EARTH)

29 May 2011

Explosion of the Bangkok Port’s Chemical Warehouse in March 1991: a starting point of the public demand for the right to know about the chemical information. Around 650 houses burnt down with over 5,000 slum residents, fire fighters and concerned people exposed to the toxic chemical fumes, 4 sudden death and over 100 victims proved to have chronic illness and serious health impact caused by the unknown chemical substances. The incident has important impact in Thailand’ environmental-related law reform.  read more...

The Battery Report: Result of a Preliminary survey on Managing Expired Cell Phone Batteries in Thailand

By Ecological Alert and Recovery-Thailand (EARTH), Supported by International POPs Elimination Network (IPEN), October 2010

Modern humans are not only reliant but it could be argued that they are now dependent on electronic technology. In the realm of telecommunications, especially, there is continuous development of and demand for electronic products. As a result, the increased rate of electronic waste (e-waste) has grown enormously (currently estimated at 40 million tones per year by the United Nations) increase is continuing. Cell phones, in particular, will be disposed of at a rate approximately ten times higher in China and 18 times higher in India in the next ten year period.


Pollutant Release and Transfer Register – Important Tool for NGOs Working on Chemicals

Powerpoint Presentation from the IPEN General Assembly, 22 October 2010

By RNDr. Jindřich Petrlík, Arnika Association



Literature Review: The Impact of Mercury on Human Health

Mercury Disability Board, 2010

The approach used by the Mercury Disability Board to assess whether or not an applicant has signs or symptoms consistent with mercury poisoning was designed based on the state of science and knowledge of the impact of mercury on human health in the 1980s. In 2009 the Board commissioned a review of the literature to determine if there is new knowledge that might in some way inform the Board's work. Proposals were sought from senior scientists who have published in this field in the scholarly literature. Drs. Laurie Chan and Donna Mergler were engaged in July, 2009 to complete the work.


Malondialdehyde-dG Adducts among Workers of a Thai Industrial Estate and Nearby Residents

National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 11 August 2009

Humans living near industrial point emissions can experience high levels of exposures to air pollutants. Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate in Thailand is the location of the largest steel, oil refinery and petrochemical factory complexes in the South–Eastern Asia. Air pollution is an important source of oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species, which interact with DNA and lipids, leading to oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation, respectively.


Mercury in Fish, A Global Health Hazard

Zero Mercury Working Group and Mercury Policy Project, 10 February 2009

Methylmercury contamination of fish and fish-eating mammals is a global public health concern. The risk is greatest for populations whose per capita fish consumption is high, and in areas where environmental pollution has elevated the average mercury content of fish. But methylmercury hazards also exist where per capita fish consumption and average mercury levels in fish are comparatively low. In cultures where fish-eating marine mammals such as whales and seals are part of the traditional diet, methylmercury in these animals adds to total dietary exposure.


DNA adduct formation among workers in a Thai industrial estate and nearby residents

By Marco Peluso,  Petcharin Srivatanakul, Armelle Munnia, Adisorn Jedpiyawongse, Aurelie Meunier, Suleeporn Sangrajrang, Sara Piro, and Marcello Ceppi, and Paolo Boffetta, 1 November 2007

The genotoxic effects of air pollutant exposures have been studied in people living and working in Map Ta Phut, Rayong province, Thailand, a site where is located the Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate (MIE) one of the largest steel, refinery and petrochemical complex in the South–Eastern Asia. This was done by the conduction of a transversal study aimed to compare the prevalence of bulky DNA adducts in groups of subjects experiencing various degree of air pollution.


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(Increasing Transparency in Industrial Pollution Management through Citizen Science)